Office phone: +51 953732054
Select Page

, The Nasca Lines are a set of giant geoglyphs located in the Peruvian coastal plain, about 400 kilometers south of Lima (the Capital of Peru).

Created by the ancient Nasca culture and depicting plants, animals, and various shapes, the 2,000-year-old Nasca Lines can only be fully appreciated from the air due to their enormous size.

Despite having been studied for more than 80 years, the geoglyphs, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1994, are still considered a mystery by researchers.

 There are a few theories about the origin of the Nazca Lines; among the main ones, for instance, Maria Reiche was convinced that the lines represented a vast astronomical calendar used to mark the places where the sun and other celestial bodies rose and set on the horizon. 

Also, the British explorer Tony Morrison found evidence of the existence of small shrines that appeared to be connected by the Nazca lines.

Others have considered that the lines served as ritual centers to help the dead attain immortality or to perform religious ceremonies and rites.

 Moreover, scholars believe that it was a Map of water sources and a form of worship of the water-providing deities: It has been proposed that the lines and shapes served as a map of subway water sources for those who needed supplies in the desert.

Archaeologist John Reinhard also suggested that the figures symbolized the worship of the water-providing deities.

The offer of tours to visit the Nazca Lines is extensive. You have a great variety of options to choose from, such as overflights to the Nazca Lines, the combination of flight + Buggies and Sandboard, and the flight plus a visit to the Cantalloc Aqueducts.

 The desert climate in the Nasca area means there are no winters with shallow temperatures. Although the lines can be visited throughout the year, the ideal time to do it is between December and March because the winds and turbulences are minimal in that season.

Also, during this time of the year, the summer is warmer, allowing light and comfortable clothing to be used.

The geography of the province of Nasca is characterized by valleys and rivers (Ingenio – Changuillo, Aja, Socos, Tierras Blancas, Taruga, Trancas, and Poroma rivers), all tributaries of the Grande river basin.

There are immense pampas and hills typical of the coastal desert. To the province’s east, you can appreciate gorges that give beginning to the first Andean foothills.

The place where the Nasca culture developed is a tablazo, a tectonic uplift, which in the case of the tablazo of Ica flows into the sea in the form of a low cliff.

The climate is warm, rainfall is scarce, and the terrain is arid, with sandy pampas and quite porous, with numerous subway filtrations that change the course of the rivers, which on many occasions emerge several kilometers away, constituting oases.

Every year, more than one hundred thousand people visit the Nazca Lines. The lines are essential for the province of Nasca, as they generate employment and a great deal of fluidity in the local economy.

To date, more than 1,500 geoglyphs are known in the Nasca lines.

The geometric lines and figures extend over 400 square kilometers in southern Peru; In some cases the figures are up to 1.9 kilometers long, and the lines are up to 10 kilometers.


What is the history of the Nazca Lines?

The Nazca Lines are a group of geoglyphs made in the Nasca desert in southern Peru. They were created between 500 BC and 500 AD by members of the Nasca civilization.

There are two main phases of the Nazca lines: the Paracas phase, from 400 to 200 BC, and the Nasca phase, from 200 BC to 500 AD. As of this year, 2022 even 168 new figures have been found with drones, and archaeologists believe there are more to be found.

Most lines cross the landscape in a straight line, but there are also symbolic designs of animals and plants. The combined length of all lines exceeds 1,300 km.

The lines are usually between 10 and 15 cm deep. They were made by removing the top layer of reddish-brown iron oxide-coated pebbles to reveal a yellowish-gray subsoil. 

When the sub-layer of this gravel is removed, the light-colored clayey soil exposed at the bottom of the trench contrasts sharply in color and tone with the surrounding ground surface, producing visible lines.

This sublayer contains large amounts of lime. With the moisture of the morning fog, it hardens to form a protective layer that shields the lines from the winds, thus preventing erosion.

The Nasca used this technique to “draw” several hundred simple but enormous curvilinear figures of animals and humans.

The earthwork project is vast and complex: the area covered by all the lines is almost 450 km2, and the most prominent animal figures alone can span nearly 370 m.

For instance, the hummingbird is 93 m long, the condor is 134 m, the monkey is 93 m by 58 m, and the spider is 47 m.

The total area of the lines is almost 450 km2, and the giant figures can cover nearly 370 meters.

The Nasca region’s dry, windless, constant climate has preserved the lines well. This desert is one of the driest on Earth and maintains a temperature near 25 °C (77 °F) throughout the year.

The lack of wind has helped keep the lines exposed and visible.

Some of the Nasca lines form figures best seen from the air (at about 500 m), although they are also visible from the surrounding foothills and other high places.

A continuous line usually forms the figures. Due to their isolation and the plateau’s dry, stable, windless climate, the lines have been mostly naturally preserved. 

On rare occasions, weather changes may temporarily alter the overall designs. As of 2012, the lines are said to have been deteriorating due to the influx of squatters inhabiting the land.

The figures vary in complexity. Hundreds are simple lines and geometric shapes; more than 70 are zoomorphic designs, such as a hummingbird, spider, fish, condor, heron, monkey, lizard, dog, cat, and human.

Other shapes include trees and flowers.

 Scholars differ in their interpretation of the purpose of the designs but generally attribute religious significance to them. They were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994.

Several pivotal figures have delved into the mystery of the Nazca Lines since the arrival of the spaniards to the Inca Empire to date.

These include the 16th-century Spanish explorer Pedro Cieza de León who was one of the first ones to have recorded its existence.

More recently  the Peruvian scholar Toribio Mejía Xesspe, and the Americans Paul Kosok and John Reinhard (the latter esteemed within National Geographic) did extensive work in the area.

Also, German researcher Maria Reiche who dedicated her entire life to uncover its mysteries, and Japanese scholar Masato Sakai.

We recommend the following books If you wish to learn more about the Nazca Lines, w: 

  • Contributions to geometry and astronomy in ancient Peru. REICHE, María. Editorial Epígrafe. 1993, 
  • Nasca Lines. Of the men who drew the desert. HERRAN, Eduardo. Editorial Faculty of Communication Sciences, Tourism, and Psychology of the USMP. 2016.
  • The Nazca Lines. A new approach to their origin and meaning. REINHARD, Johan. Editorial Los Pinos. 1997.

To date, more than 1,500 geoglyphs are known in the Nasca lines.

The lines and geoglyphs of Nasca and Pampas de Jumana in Palpa are considered extraordinary examples of the astronomical and religious expression of the pre-Hispanic societies that flourished on the southern coast of Peru.

Thanks to their exceptional surface design, they bear witness to a culture whose tradition, beliefs, and thinking developed independently in South America.

The site was transformed into a highly symbolic, ritual, social and cultural landscape that remains visible today.

The Nazca Lines were declared Historical and Cultural Heritage on December 17, 1994.

The Nazca lines are considered the most outstanding group of geoglyphs in the world and are incomparable in extension, magnitude, quantity, size and diversity with any other similar work in the world.


What are the theories about the origin of the Nazca Lines?

Recent investigations led notably by archaeologist Johan Reinhard, sheds new light on the Nazca Lines’ potential significance.

He argues a different purpose for the Nazca Lines, suggesting a connection to water—a vital asset in the arid Peruvian coastal region.

Contrary to being an irrigation system or a guide for finding water sources, these geoglyphs are thought to have served as part of a ritual aimed at invoking much-needed rain from the gods.

Other scholas such as Maria Reiche, a pioneering Nasca researcher, proposed an idea that the lines constituted a vast astronomical calendar, marking the positions where the sun and celestial bodies rose and set on the horizon.

Maria Reiche dedicated her almost her entire life to the understanding of the Nasca lines and her contributions are inmesurable.

Another theory suggests a religious significance, positing that the lines were crafted to honor the gods. Given the Nasca civilization’s strong religious practices, this dedication to the project aligns with their spiritual beliefs.

British explorer Tony Morrison uncovered small shrines seemingly linked by the Nazca lines. Some speculate that these lines could have functioned as ceremonial sites, aiding in rituals for the departed or religious ceremonies, potentially linked to the pursuit of immortality.


    What are the myths about Nazca Lines?

    The myths surrounding the Nazca lines encompass extraterrestrial connections and ancient astronaut theories.

    These beliefs intertwine with stories of teachers arriving from the sky, depicted within the lines, resembling “flying gods” in Nasca legends from the 16th-century Spanish conquest of Peru.

    According to some Nasca myths, these celestial beings possessed elongated skulls, contributing to the prevalent belief that these enigmatic lines were constructed by extraterrestrial visitors.

    Swiss writer Erich von Daniken ardently supported the notion of ancient astronauts and extraterrestrial involvement. His 1968 publication, “Chariots of the Gods,” postulated that these mysterious shapes and lines were crafted by ancient beings as navigational aids and landing strips for their spacecraft.

    Von Daniken’s assertions suggested that the Nazca lines substantiated the visits of extraterrestrial astronauts, shaping ancient civilizations.

    He proposed that the Native Americans, viewing Nasca as a sacred site, continued to create additional figures and tracks, hoping to entice the gods’ return, although they never did.

    How were the Nazca Lines formed?

    The Nasca Lines, made between 500 BC and 500 AD, were crafted by gently removing dark rocks, revealing lighter ground underneath, forming these famous shapes in the desert soil. 

    Ancient indigenous Nazca workers used ropes and stakes to make straight lines and marked edges for larger shapes like trapezoids.

    They removed stones and arranged them along the borders, creating spirals by moving in circles, gradually widening the lines.

    People used simple tools, not high-tech equipment, to form these stunning designs. It was a team effort that brought the community together and showcased their organized workmanship.

    Are the Nazca Lines Important for Peru’s History?

    Indeed, the Nazca lines hold immense significance in both Peruvian and global history. Recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, these intricate lines stand as an iconic symbol, deeply embedded within Peru’s rich historical and cultural narrative.

    They represent a profound archaeological marvel, marking a pinnacle of the ancient Nazca civilization that thrived in the southern hemisphere between 500 BC and 500 AD.

    These lines serve as a remarkable testament to the mind-blowing heritage of the pre-Hispanic Nazca people, offering invaluable insights into their millennia-old legacy.


    Is it safe to visit the Nazca Lines?

    Nazca and Ica, where the Nazca Lines are located, are super safe places, just like other spots in Peru. Remember, it’s always good to be a bit cautious when traveling, but visiting these lines is totally cool and safe! Visiting the Nazca lines is super safe!

    Also, when it comes to flying over these mysteries lines, since 2010, only a few top-checked airplane companies operate tours in the area, making the chance of anything going wrong super, super low.

    There are towers and ground trips to see the lines from below, if flying’s not your thing. It’s cool, but flying over them gives the best views! Just make sure to take this awesome chance to see these ancient drawings from way up high.


    Where are the Nasca Lines Located?

    The Nazca lines sit in Peru, about 450 kilometers away from Lima, close to the Pacific Ocean. They stretch across the Ingenio, Nasca, Palpa, and Socos plains. The land in these plains looks reddish during the day and turns violet at night, like a big stage surrounded by hills. The lines can be seen from above using high towers or flying over them.


    What are the coordinates of the Nazca Lines?

    The coordinates of the Nasca Lines are as follows:

    Latitude: -14° 42′ 59.99″ S

    Longitude: -75° 07′ 60.00″ W


    What are the Tours for Nazca Lines?

    When it comes the value of tours around Nazca; the cost of 30-minuted ride overflying the lines cost about $150 to $350, and the big ones cost  $150 to $250 per person while longer flights cost more depending of the starting point.

    For those who don’t want to fly, then there are also towers where you can see the figures up close. The highest tower cost about $3-5 and lets you see some of the most impressive figures like a condor, monkey, and spider. One of the lower towers cost about $2-3 and gives you a chance to see the astronaut and lizard.

    People can also visit museums to learn more about the lines. The site museum costs around $6-8 and features abundant information about Maria Reiche, the most famous Nazca researcher.

    There’s a bike tour that costs around $50-100, If you like biking, or you can take a private car tour that starts at $150 and shows you the different spots related to the lines.

       What is the best season for visiting Nazca Lines?

      The best season to visit the Nazca Lines is betwen December and March, Peru’s summer, offers the best weather with low moisture and warm temperatures along the Peruvian coast.

      However, it’s the opposite of Machu Picchu’s weather that is mainly rainy and overcast. Nevertheless, this season makes it an ideal time to explore both places, combining your travel for a fulfilling experience in Peru.


      What are the Hiking Routes for Nasca Lines?

      There are three main hiking and walking routes around the Nazca Lines site, namely: the Nasca City Walk and Archaeological Sites (17.9 km round-trip route), The Cahuachi – Tambo de Perro – Nasca Dunes (37.0 km circular route), and The Panoramic Route: Nasca – María Reiche Tower (49.6 km round-trip route).

      The first trail is an easy one, taking 4 hours to cover with a positive vertical drop of 249 m, allowing visitors to tour some archaeological sites near the city, like Cantayoc aqueducts, Los Paredones, as well as close to some of the Nazca lines, before ending at the airport where they can fly over Nazca Lines.

      The second trail is considered challenging, taking 9 ½ hours with a 788m positive vertical drop, which starts in the town of Cahuachi and goes through windy terrain perfect for Buggy cars.

      The third Trail takes 11 ½ hours covering 49 KM distance, offering 453m Positive Vertical Drop.


      What are the Closest Destinations to Nasca Lines?

      Paracas National Reserve is the nearest point of interest to the Nazca Lines. The Paracas National Reserve is a protected area located in the province of Pisco, in the department of Ica which was declared as such on September 25, 1975.

      Paracas reserve was created to conserve a portion of the sea and the desert, protecting the diverse species of wild flora and fauna inhabiting Las Ballestas islands. Paracas reserve is located 215 kilometers from Nasca.

      In April 1992, it was recognized as one of the sites of unique character for the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (RAMSAR Convention), especially as a habitat for aquatic species such as the sea lion, Humboldt penguins (which are in danger of extinction), guano birds such as the booby, the guanay, the pelican and other vital species.

      Huacachina Lagoon is a large oasis located five kilometers west of Ica and 146 kilometers from Nasca, in the middle of the coastal desert. Green waters, it arose due to the upwelling of subway currents.

      Around it is abundant vegetation composed of palm trees, eucalyptus (introduced species), and the carob tree known as Huarango, which serves as a resting place for the flying birds that pass through this region.

      All this contributes to making Huacachina one of the most beautiful places on the Peruvian coast. Pampa Galeras Barbara D’Achille National Reserve is located in the province of Lucanas, in the department of Ayacucho, 77 km from the city of Nasca. 

      It covers an area of 6,500 hectares; however, its area of influence is estimated to be close to 60,000 hectares and includes several rural communities. Its main objective is to conserve the vicuña to allow its sustainable use with benefits reverted to the high Andean inhabitants.

      Cerro Blanco is considered the highest dune in the world and a favorite for sandboarding and paragliding. The dune reaches 2,078 meters above sea level and 1,176 meters from the base to the summit. Cerro Blanco is located 14 kilometers from Nazca, east of the Nasca Valley.

      Sacaco is located 100 km south of the city of Nasca, in the district of Bella Union, in Arequipa. Sacco is a rich deposit of fossil remains, especially whales and sharks of the tertiary era.

      There is a small on-site museum, a branch of the Natural History Museum of the Universidad Mayor de San Marcos. 

      How to Get from Cusco to Nasca Lines?

      Traveling from Cusco to the Nazca Lines is mainly done by bus via Puquio or Arequipa.

      Nazca sits halfway between Lima and Arequipa, making it accessible by road. While Nazca has an airport, it’s used mainly for tourist flights over the lines, so most travel happens by road from Lima or Arequipa.

      There are bus services from nearby places like Ica or Paracas, providing convenient options.

      Keep in mind, the overland journey might take time,If you’re coming from Cusco, as there are limited daily departures. Consider overnight buses or explore the scenic route through Arequipa for a different adventure.


      What to know before going to the Nasca Lines?

      Opt for morning flights between 7-10 am for clearer views and smoother rides, thanks to calmer winds. This time frame offers the most breathtaking experience.

      Don’t forget to pack water, a hat, sunscreen, and sunglasses to beat the scorching sun.

      While days are usually hot, nights get cooler, especially in July (the coldest) and February (the hottest).

      For the perfect experience, choose a reputable tour company or plan your independent trip wisely.

      Flight prices vary, but expect around 35 minutes at roughly USD 100, making those early morning flights an absolute treat

      When are the Nasca Lines Open?

      The Nasca Lines are accessible for flights starting at 6:00 am. For ground exploration, reach there by 8:00 am. The airfield shuts at 5:00 pm, but the lookout point stays open till 5:30 pm.


      How is the Nasca Lines Itinerary?

      There are three options for the best itineraries to explore Nazca.

      First, consider a trip from Lima with Cruz del Sur Buses for those looking to explore the incredible Nasca Lines. The journey takes 7.5 and 8.5 hours along Peru’s Panamerican Highway South, which passes through historic Pisco and Paracas Reserve before arriving in Nasca. Private transfer is also available for time-conscious travelers willing to pay extra for speedier journeys.


      Second, You can spend your night in the city of Nasca and get up early to experience a truly spectacular view. Take an aerial tour on one of many available airlines that offer flights over the ancient Nasca Lines, soaring through 30-40 minutes for sweeping views at lookouts over desert terrain with famous figures like the hummingbird, lizard spider, and monkey spread out before you. 


      Third, Alternatively, take a bus north along Panamerican Highway South from town – it’s fast and cheap but won’t afford as fantastic sightseeing opportunities, so if possible, fly instead!


      For the smoothest flight, take off in the a.m., when turbulence is at its lowest levels- but be sure to book with trusted airlines and budget for surcharges on top of your ticket price; look out for AeroNasca, AeroParacas, or Movil Air as great options!


      What is the best vehicle for visiting Nasca Lines?

      If you ask what is the best vehicle to visit the Nasca lines. Going by plane is the best way since it will allow you to contemplate the main figures in greater detail. 

      You should be aware that the flight has several sharp turns that make some passengers nauseous. Try to eat only a little in the hours before take-off. Going early in the morning is recommended as there is better visibility and less wind.

      Choosing a good company such as AeroNasca, AeroParacas or Móvil Air is recommended. 

      Another alternative is to go by land and climb the observation tower. The tower is on the outskirts of Nasca. It is 13 meters high and offers a good view of two lines: the tree and the hands.


      How many hours should a person spend visiting the Nasca Lines?

      The trip by light aircraft to see the Nasca lines lasts approximately half an hour to forty minutes. 


      Is it possible to stay at Nasca Lines?

      Yes, you can stay nearby the Nasca lines in Nasca town. 

      For those looking to explore the city of Nasca, travelers will find various accommodation options. The budget-friendly option is Nasca Travel One, offering private rooms with all creature comforts such as TV and Wi-Fi at an affordable price – plus continental breakfast is included. Meanwhile, for those wanting something more luxurious, Alegria Hotel offers spacious rooms surrounded by lush gardens and pool areas, giving guests their secret hideaway within the city – alongside other facilities like its restaurant. 

      Travelers seeking a remote desert escape with all the comforts of home are found at Hotel Las Dunas in Ica. Enjoy an oasis just 45 minutes away from Paracas National Reserve and 135 km to discover ancient Nasca Lines. Lima is only 300km away – perfect for travelers wanting to explore Peru’s capital city but relax in a tranquil setting when finished. With 50 rooms, choose between standard, superior, or deluxe suites and one villa accommodation option.



      What was the purpose of the Nasca Lines for the Nazca culture that created them?

      The latest research and findings at Yamagata University suggest that the mysterious lines created by the Nazca people in Peru’s desert were far more than just patterns on the sand. These ancient markings served as epicenters of spiritual power, unifying multiple cultures between the coast and highlands near Iquique. It has also been theorized that they acted like signs directing travelers to Cahuachi – a socio-political hub for Nasca citizens back then. Thus, a new perspective reveals an extraordinary purpose behind these age-old figures crafted into sandy landscapes many millennia ago!

      The Nasca culture was a remarkable civilization that left traces of its existence in Peru. Its center, Cahuachi on the Grande River, flourished between the first and seventh centuries before declining. One unique aspect of this ancient society is their giant geoglyphs in the Pampas de Jumana, considered astronomical depictions or even a calendar! The mysterious purpose behind these huge drawings remains unknown today, but no doubt speaks volumes about these impressive people’s knowledge and complexity.

      What are some theories about the purpose of the Nazca lines?

      Various theories are proposed by scientists and scholars regarding the purpose of the famous Nazca lines. Some hypotheses are widely accepted among the scientific community, while others present theoretical scenarios that are difficult to test. One prevailing viewpoint suggests that these lines were created by two distinct pre-Inca cultures during separate time periods. Specifically, it is believed that the Paracas culture (700 BC – 200 AD) and the Nazca culture (1 BC – 600 AD) were responsible for the design and construction of the lines. Consequently, the lines have become known by the name of their presumed last designers.


      What is the size and appearance of the Humanoid geoglyph?

      The Humanoid geoglyph, recently discovered and considered incredibly awe-inspiring, is characterized by its relatively small size compared to other figures found in the area. Measuring approximately 2 meters (6.6 feet) in width and 4 meters (13.1 feet) in height, this humanoid representation stands out due to its diminutive stature. The geoglyph portrays a little human figure adorned with a distinctive headdress featuring three points atop its rectangular head. The humanoid is depicted holding a scepter, adding to its intriguing appearance. Despite the challenges posed by the deteriorated state of the geoglyph, the combined efforts of the Artificial Intelligence system, along with the expertise of the archaeologists in charge, were successful in locating and highlighting this remarkable image.

      Who discovered more than 140 new Nazca lines images in 2004?

      In 2004, a team of researchers led by Professor Masato Sakai from Yamagata University collaborated with Peruvian archaeologist Jorge Olano. With advanced technologies, including IBM’s PAIRS geoscope, they successfully unearthed over 140 previously undiscovered images of the Nazca lines.


      What are some other names for the Pelican geoglyph?

      The Pelican geoglyph, also known as Alcatraz (an old Spanish name for Pelican), is one of the Nazca Lines Images that presents a challenge regarding its distinct identification. Apart from the name Pelican, this geoglyph is associated with several other names, such as Flamenco, Cormorant, and even Phoenix.


      What is the representation of the Nazca dog geoglyph?

      The Nazca dog geoglyph is a lesser-known figure among the Nazca Lines images. It portrays a dog in a state of surprise and alertness. This depiction showcases the dog standing upright, with its limbs and tail fully extended, its ears pointing upward, and its eyes and mouth open. However, this posture may simply be the dog stretching its body. The dimensions of the dog geoglyph do not exceed 170 feet in length. It is widely believed that this representation specifically references the Peruvian Inca Orchid, a native breed of dog found in Peru, known for its hairless appearance.


      What is the significance of the whale geoglyph?

      The whale geoglyph holds significant meaning within the context of the Nazca culture and the famous Nazca lines. Representing a fairly uncomplicated yet easily distinguishable design, the whale geoglyph was one of many indigenous animals depicted on the vast canvas of the Peruvian desert by the Nazca people. Specifically, the whale geoglyph is a remarkable example of the immense diversity celebrated through the Nazca lines. In addition to the whale geoglyph, there is another intricate depiction of an Orca or Killer Whale, further showcasing Nazca artwork’s complexity. This particular geoglyph, however, proves to be more challenging to differentiate. The presence of these whale geoglyphs highlights the Nazca culture’s deep appreciation for the rich variety of animal life that surrounded them. Their depiction serves as a testament to the knowledge, skill, and artistry of the Nazca people in capturing the essence of these majestic creatures on the desert landscape, ensuring their enduring legacy for generations to come.


      What is the significance of the spider geoglyph?

      The spider geoglyph holds significant importance due to its distinctive features and intricate portrayal. The varying width of the drawn lines, stretching up to 210 centimeters in the widest areas and reducing to approximately 40 centimeters in narrower sections, adds to its captivating allure. This precise craftsmanship highlights the creators’ meticulous attention to detail and skill. Its unique characteristics make the spider geoglyph stand out among other figures, making it a must-see attraction for visitors exploring the area.


      What is the significance of the parrot geoglyph?

      The parrot geoglyph is significant among the vast lines and figures in the Nazca desert. Although not immediately apparent due to the many other lines in the area, its distinct features are indeed discernible to those with keen observation. Its beak, head, and an evident large crest on one side contribute to the identification of this avian representation.

      The parrot geoglyph showcases a unique artistic style, predominantly characterized by circular forms. However, the image has suffered alterations over time due to natural erosion and human interference, particularly in the lower section, where the construction of paths and roads occurred. Despite these modifications, the outline of its wings is still discernible. Intriguingly, these wings are portrayed through parallel rectangular shapes, which deviate from a strictly natural representation, suggesting a deliberate artistic choice.

      The enigmatic nature of the parrot geoglyph has stirred the imagination of various theorists and academics. Its unconventional design has sparked countless theories and interpretations, contributing to the ongoing discussion surrounding the Nazca lines. This geoglyph’s presence has become a subject of intense curiosity, as it holds clues and symbolism that inspire scholarly exploration and provide insights into the ancient civilization that etched these remarkable formations onto the desert floor.


      What is the significance of the hummingbird geoglyph?

      The hummingbird geoglyph holds great significance due to its representation of a revered deity or flying god in the ancient Nazca culture of Peru. Peru is known for its diverse hummingbird species, with over 125 recorded species, and it is believed that the Nazca population held the hummingbird in high regard. According to Maria Rostorowski, a prominent Peruvian historian, offerings were made annually to appease the god Hummingbirds and prevent drought and lack of rain.

      This geoglyph not only attracts attention but also exhibits remarkable craftsmanship. Its design allows it to be easily identified during flights over the Nazca lines. The wingspan of the hummingbird geoglyph reaches an impressive 97 meters, while its pointed beak adds further detail to its portrayal. Stretching across a length of 320 feet and a width of 216 feet, this massive depiction emphasizes the contrast between the small size of the hummingbird and its larger-than-life representation in the geoglyph.

      Overall, the hummingbird geoglyph is a testament to the cultural significance placed on this bird by the Nazca people. Its creation and size highlight the devotion and respect given to the deity it represents. It also serves as a visual reminder of the connection between the gods and the natural world in the Nazca belief system.


      What is the significance of the astronaut geoglyph?

      The astronaut geoglyph found among the Nazca lines has intrigued researchers and experts for years, as its significance remains a mystery. The geoglyph, also called the giant or the owl-man, stands out amongst the faithful representations of key animals in Nazca culture.

      This particular geoglyph depicts what appears to be a figure of a human being with large eyes and boots on its feet. Some experts propose that it may belong to the Paracas culture, predating the Nazca culture. Others suggest that it could represent a fisherman, as a net is seen in the figure’s left hand, which is logical considering the area’s proximity to the sea. However, the true intention and purpose behind the astronaut geoglyph remain enigmatic.

      Academics and researchers continue to debate its meaning, leading to various outlandish theories. Some believe it to be a celestial being or a representation of an extraterrestrial visitor, while others assert that it symbolizes an important figure in Nazca religious or mythological beliefs.

      To truly appreciate and understand the astronaut geoglyph, one must observe it from above by flying over the Nazca lines. This perspective provides a comprehensive view of its intricate design and scale, providing further context for its possible significance.

      Despite extensive analysis and speculation, the true nature and purpose of the astronaut geoglyph still need to be discovered, leaving room for ongoing exploration and interpretation by future researchers. Its enigmatic presence continues to captivate and intrigue those interested in the ancient Nazca civilization.


      What is the significance of the monkey geoglyph?

      The monkey geoglyph in the Nazca lines holds significant meaning and offers insights into the ancient Nazca civilization. This large geoglyph, measuring approximately 330 feet long and 190 feet high, is among the most iconic and emblematic images among the diverse collection of Nazca lines.

      The monkey geoglyph is particularly intriguing because it represents Peruvian Amazon fauna, as monkeys are not typically found in the arid Nazca desert region. This suggests that the presence of the monkey geoglyph may indicate the existence of trade routes during the time when the Nazca culture flourished.

      The depiction of a monkey, a creature primarily associated with the Peruvian jungle located far away from the desert, showcases the Nazca civilization’s profound knowledge about the entire fauna of Peru. It is a testament to their understanding and appreciation of the diverse ecosystems within their country.

      Intricately portrayed with nine fingers and a distinctive spiral-shaped tail, the monkey geoglyph captures the vast catalog of Nazca lines imagery. Exploring these lines during a Nazca lines tour allows one to marvel at the tremendous undertaking of the ancient Nazca civilization, which undertook the creation of these massive and intricate geoglyphs.

      The significance of the monkey geoglyph lies not only in its representation of an unusual fauna for the Nazca desert region but also in its potential connection to trade routes and the complex knowledge possessed by the Nazca civilization concerning the fauna of Peru. It serves as a reminder of this ancient civilization’s ingenuity and cultural depth, leaving a lasting impression on those fortunate enough to witness it.


      What is the significance of the condor geoglyph?

      The condor geoglyph is significant among the Nazca lines as one of the most famous and instantly recognizable images. However, recent suggestions by expert groups propose that the figure more closely resembles that of a Chicago, a bird known for hovering near the lines. This theory gains credibility because Andean condors, although associated with Peru’s Andes, are typically observed over 100 miles away from the Nazca area. It is common to find depictions of animals from other regions in the geoglyphs, as seen in other figures.

      The condor geoglyph is truly remarkable in size, measuring an impressive 130 meters in length and 115 meters in width. Descriptions and photographs need to capture these ancient wonders’ true grandeur and magnificence. It is highly recommended that one witnesses the Nazca lines firsthand to truly appreciate their intricate craftsmanship and ponder the methods used to create them.



      How is the Geography of Nasca Lines?

      The geography of the province of Nasca is characterized by valleys and rivers (Ingenio – Changuillo, Aja, Socos, Tierras Blancas, Taruga, Trancas, and Poroma rivers), all tributaries of the Grande river basin. There are immense pampas and hills typical of the coastal desert, highlighting the pampas of Jumana where the famous geoglyphs or Nasca Lines are found. To the province’s east, you can appreciate gorges that give beginning to the first Andean foothills. Coastal features include the inlet of San Fernando and the bays of San Nicolas and San Juan in the southern end of the province.

      Specifically, the place where the Nasca culture developed is a tablazo, i.e., a tectonic uplift, which in the case of the tablazo of Ica flows into the sea in the form of a low cliff. The climate is warm, rainfall is scarce, and the terrain is arid, with sandy pampas and quite porous, with numerous subway filtrations that change the course of the rivers, which on many occasions emerge several kilometers away, constituting oases. 


      What is the Geological Profile of Nasca Lines?

      An intricate tapestry has been painted onto a fan-shaped canvas in the Nasca desert for thousands of years. This immense work is comprised of alluvial deposits beginning as far back as the Pleistocene and spanning to modern times; some areas are covered with dunes or other evidence left by climactic fluctuations. The resulting geoglyphs stand today in testament to those who created them long ago.

      The stunning Aeolian landscapes of the region are composed of faceted triangles and fans created by alluvial deposits, dissected further still by mighty Urupalla and Socos Gorges. Hills, mountains, and debris slopes – each featuring a unique combination of subvolcanic rocks, sediments, and continental/marine sedimentary rock – make up the impressive topography. These geological marvels provide captivating glimpses into an ancient world that few can ever witness in person.

      Soils and sediments in the region can be divided into two primary categories. The first comprises mostly alluvial deposits, ranging from well-rounded gravels to subangular pebbles embedded in a sandy or silty matrix. In some areas, there are higher concentrations of finer particles, such as clays and silts, associated with water flows indicated by pampas features. The second sector consists mainly of weathering soils containing clay adjacent to existing intrusive rocks that may manifest hardened crusts over time due to their exposure to elements like wind and sand sun rays.

      A unique soil formation was discovered in the pampas’ northern reaches. It had formed atop an ancient desert alluvium with limited rainfall and no signs of natural disturbance. On further inspection, it became evident that this sedimentation process was due to sustained wind patterns rather than transport from other landscapes – meaning its preservation is virtually intact! This area’s weather cycles vary significantly across seasons, making it interesting to explore their meteorological data in-depth. 

      The Nasca pampas have been steadily affected over time by the El Niño events, which cause climatic anomalies in certain areas. These alterations are evident with streams like Urupalla and Socos where rain washes away finer particles from slopes as well as accumulation of coarse materials on them.


      What are the findings in Nasca Lines?

      There are three basic types of Nasca Lines: straight lines, geometric designs, and pictorial representations.

      There are more than 800 straight lines on the coastal plain, some of which are 48 km long. 

      In addition, there are more than 300 geometric designs, including basic shapes such as triangles, rectangles, and trapezoids, as well as spirals, arrows, zigzags, and wavy lines.

      The Nasca Lines are best known for their depictions of 70 animals and plants, some of which are up to 370 meters long. Some examples are a spider, a hummingbird, a cactus, a monkey, a whale, a llama, a duck, a flower, a tree, a lizard, and a dog.

      The Nasca also created other forms, such as a humanoid figure (nicknamed “The Astronaut”), hands, and some unidentifiable representations.

      In 2011, a Japanese team discovered a new geoglyph that appears to depict a decapitation scene. At about 4.2 meters long and 3.1 meters wide, is much smaller than other Nasca figures and is not easily seen from aerial surveys. 

      In 2016, the same team found another geoglyph, this time one depicting a 98-foot-long (30 meters) mythical creature with many legs and mottled markings sticking out its tongue.

      In 2018, Peruvian archaeologists announced that they had discovered more than 50 new geoglyphs in the region, using drones to map the landmarks.

      This year, the team of academics from Yamagata University, led by Japanese researcher Masato Sakai, found 168 new geoglyphs near the Nasca lines with the help of Peruvian archaeologists, drones, and aerial images.

      Where was the recently discovered Cat geoglyph found, and what are its characteristics?

      The recently discovered Cat geoglyph, which measures 31 meters or 121 feet in length, was found on a natural mound near the Nazca lines. Located at a natural viewpoint, this impressive figure had gone unnoticed by many tourists who passed by it every day. The Cat geoglyph stands out due to its unique characteristics. It depicts a cat with pointy ears, large round eyes, a long striped tail, and an open mouth. Its expression conveys a sense of wonder, setting it apart from the typical Nazca figures. Interestingly, the image of the cat was already present in ceramics and fabrics of the Nazca culture, indicating its significance and association with the ancient civilization. Through carbon 14 dating, it has been estimated that this magnificent geoglyph could have been created between 200 and 100 B.C., making it older than many of the other Nazca figures in the surrounding area. The discovery and preservation of this ancient artwork is truly remarkable.


      What is the nearest city to Nasca Lines?

      Nasca is a city just 21 kilometers from the fascinating Nasca Lines, located in Peru. Just 6 hours and 20 minutes by car will take you on a fantastic journey from Lima – the capital of Peru to these mysterious figures etched into the landscape.


      What are the books about Nasca Lines?

      You can consult the following books about the Nasca Lines: 

      1. Contributions to geometry and astronomy in ancient Peru. REICHE, María. Editorial Epígrafe. 1993. 
      2. Peru. The secret of the desert. REICHE, María. Ministry of Education of Peru. 2001.
      3. Nasca Lines. Of the men who drew the desert. HERRAN, Eduardo. Editorial Faculty of Communication Sciences, Tourism and Psychology of the USMP. 2016.
      4. The Nazca Lines. A new approach to their origin and meaning. REINHARD, Johan. Editorial Los Pinos. 1997.
      5. The Mystery of the Nasca Lines. MORRISON, Tony. Publisher Woodbridge. 1987.
      6. The Nasca. SILVERMAN, Helaine. PROULX, Donald. Blackwell Publishers. 2008


      Who are the scientists who worked on Nasca Lines?

      Among the most influential scientists, archaeologists, and researchers who have worked on the Nasca Lines are the former Peruvian archaeologist Toribio Mejia Xesspe, the American Paul Kosok, the German Maria Reiche, and the Japanese Masato Sakai.

      Peruvian archaeologist Toribio Mejia Xesspe was the first researcher to study the lines in 1926 systematically. However, since they are practically impossible to identify from ground level, they only became known to the public with the arrival of commercial flights over Peru in the 1930s. 

      American professor Paul Kosok investigated and found himself at the foot of a line on June 22, 1941, just one day after the winter solstice. At the end of a full day studying the lines, Kosok looked up from his work to see the sunset aligned directly with the line. Kosok called the 310-square-mile expanse of the high desert “the greatest astronomy book in the world.”

      The German Maria Reiche, the Lady of Nasca, followed Kosok. Reiche studied the lines for 40 years and fought tirelessly to confirm her theories about the astronomical and calendrical purpose of the lines. 

      The team of academics from Yamagata University, headed by Japanese researcher Masato Sakai, found 168 new geoglyphs near the Nazca lines with the help of Peruvian archaeologists, drones, and aerial images.


      What do the straight lines of Nasca Mean?

      The magnificent Nasca Lines – sprawling geoglyphs carved into Peru’s coastal plain – have been a source of wonder and mystery for over two millennia. From bird-like shapes to animals and plants, these enormous etchings can only be truly appreciated from above due to their immense size. As much as 80 years after first being studied by researchers, many of its secrets remain unsolved—a testament to humankind’s captivating ancient art forms that continue to move us today!


      Which district is Nasca Lines in?

      The Nasca Lines are located in the Department of Ica, precisely in the Province of Nasca. 


      Is Nasca River close to the Nasca Lines?

      Yes, the Nasca Lines are located near the Nasca River. This river basin and the Rio Grande basin where the Nasca River flows into affected and influenced the history of the lines and the civilization that developed them.

      Are the Nazca Lines close to the Nazca desert?

      Yes, the Nazca lines are indeed located within what is considered the Nazca desert. The Nazca Desert, also known as the Nazca Plains, is a desert located in the department of Ica in the southern area of Peru, along the south coast of the Pacific Ocean. It is famous for the Nazca Lines, a series of enormous geoglyphs etched into the desert floor. These geoglyphs were created by removing the reddish-brown iron oxide-coated pebbles covering the Nazca Desert’s surface, revealing the light-colored earth beneath. The Nazca Lines are best viewed from the air and depict various animals, plants, and geometric shapes.

      Does the Nasca River affect the History of Nasca Lines?

      The Nasca River has influenced and affected the history of the Nasca Culture and the Nasca Lines.

      The Nasca Lines are located in the desert plains of the Rio Grande river basin, into which the Nasca River flows. This account is, in turn, an archaeological site covering more than 75,000 hectares and is one of the driest places on Earth.

      It is an area where it practically does not rain but where there is water because these rivers, at least annually, provide a flow from the rains that occur in the Andes. In such a way that these rivers become oases, thanks to which it is possible to develop agricultural activities. 

      Since the Nasca Lines are located in a place where less than one liter/m² of rain falls per year. The terrain is arid, and the composition of the soil, with a high gypsum content mixed with the morning mist and dew, keeps the Earth and stones “attached” to the ground, preventing them from being carried away by the movement of the air. This warm air acts as a cushion that prevents the lines from being erased because it forces the wind to change its direction.

      The Nasca culture developed mainly in the valleys of the department of Ica, Peru. Its center was located in Cahuachi, on the left bank of the Rio Grande, in the current province of Nasca.

      It is known that water supply played an essential role in their development. In several excavations, small cavities have been found in the geoglyphs in which offerings of agricultural products and marine animals have been found, which had a religious character. Some researchers consider that the drawings of the Nasca Lines were part of a ritual landscape whose purpose was the invocation of water.

      The Nasca culture consolidated a remarkable hydraulic technology: building aqueducts, canals, and wells, allowing them to supply water to their cultivated lands permanently.


      How did Nasca Lines live in the Past?

      Some recent research indicates that the purpose of the Nasca Lines was related to water. A precious asset in the arid lands that form the Peruvian coast. According to these studies, the geoglyphs were not used as an irrigation system or a guide to finding water but as part of a ritual to the gods, an effort to attract much-needed rain.

      On this basis, they point out that the representations of animals -some of which are symbols of rain, water, or fertility and have been found in other ancient Peruvian sites and in ceramics- are proof of this.

      In 2015, at the 80th annual meeting of the American Society for Archaeology, it was presented that the purpose of the Nazca Lines changed over time. At first, pilgrims on their way to Peruvian temples used the geoglyphs as ritual processional routes. Later, as part of a religious rite, groups would break ceramic pots against the ground at the point where the lines intersected.


      How was Agriculture in Nasca Lines?

      The Nasca culture was a civilization whose subsistence economy was based on intensive agriculture.

      The basis of the economy was agriculture, an activity that was a difficult challenge for the Nazca to overcome due to the geographic characteristics of the region where they developed: a relatively dry climate, little agricultural land, and little water for irrigation.

      In this regard, the Italian scholar Antonio Raimondi observed that:

      Located in the depths of Nazca, a subterranean waterway runs closer than four or five meters underground – unfortunately, too deep to irrigate its arid land. The river usually is dry throughout most months, yet thanks to remarkable works by the ancient civilization centuries ago; it has been able to sustain life in this otherwise desolate landscape for over ten months annually.

      The way the Nasca solved this problem is one of the most admirable achievements of their culture. Applying remarkable hydraulic technology, they built aqueducts, canals, and wells that allowed them to permanently supply water to the cultivated lands, thus developing solid agriculture.

      Their crops were: corn, beans, squash, pumpkin, cassava, peanuts, peppers, guava, lucuma, pacae, and cotton. With the latter, they developed their textiles and clothing.


      How was Mining in Nasca Lines?

      The Nasca culture used gold and silver to make masks, ear flares, nose rings, and other ritual objects decorated by embossing as sheets. These objects were for ceremonial and/or religious uses.


      How was the economy of Nasca Lines?

      The Nasca people, a Peruvian pre-Columbian civilization on the Pacific coast, developed an advanced economy based on intensive agriculture and fishing. Aqueducts provided irrigation for their cultivated land, while plentiful sea resources were taken advantage of through marine life, such as whales depicted in ceramic artworks. In addition to regional trade exchanging goods like textiles with neighboring societies of Andean culture, such as the Huarpas in the highlands, these ancient South Americans laid down solid foundations that contributed to cultural prosperity in this part of Peru long ago.


      How was Daily Life in Nasca Lines?

      At the top of the Nasca social pyramid were the principal authorities: lords and priests. These could organize community work and direct complex ceremonial activities. This elite lived in pyramidal buildings, in particular sectors whose rooms were made of adobe and walls covered with a layer of plaster or lime to cover cracks.

      At the service of these authorities were many specialized artisans, such as potters and textile makers, astrologers, musicians, and soldiers, who lived in small towns and ceremonial centers, among which Cahuachi was the most important. The warriors in particular, formed a highly respected and feared social class because they were characterized by their strength and pride in both ceramics and textiles.

      At the base of the society were the farmers and fishermen, who lived scattered in different parts of the territory. The farmers had almost all of the valleys in this way; they could develop agriculture with more space and fertile land.

      The Nasca culture did not have a unified government or a capital but was a grouping of local lordships. These lordships occupied the valleys, at the ends of which were the settlements, since the rest of the territory along each river was dedicated exclusively to agriculture.

      These lordships eventually made alliances, the only common bond being religion, in addition to culture. The struggles between them must have been ongoing.

      The Nasca were very fond of war. They were always looking for trophy heads and painted their faces imitating the falcon’s spots, as seen in their artistic representations.

      It is presumed that the expansion of this culture was military in nature, based on the following facts:

      • The sudden appearance of Nasca ceramics in some sites
      • The existence of fortified cities in the area of Nasca influence
      • The large number of weapons found in the tombs
      • The custom of head-trophies

      Their expansion must have been due to the search for new arable land in the face of the desertification process that threatened their territory.

      The practice of trophy heads originated in what is now known as Sitio Arqueologico Chavin de Huantar and Paracas cultures. However, it became widespread under the Nasc, so much so that it is even profusely represented in their early ceramics.

      It was widely believed that they were war trophies: the victorious warrior had the right to cut off the head of the defeated enemy and turn it into a trophy that he always carried with him. However, the finding of children’s and women’s heads not associated with war contexts has led to the assumption that they could also be practices linked to the cult of fertility.

      According to studies carried out in the tombs of Cahuachi and other Nazca sites, Helaine Silverman suggests that approximately 5% of the Nasca inhabitants ended up as trophy heads, which gives us an idea of the enormous diffusion of this practice.


      What were the Religious Beliefs in Nasca Lines?

      The Nasca civilization performed rituals to the divinities of the sea, the sky, the Earth, fire, water, wind, and the creator God. A significant part of their constructions and elaborations were made for the gods so there would be no droughts, and the canals would not dry up. Their religion was also related to the Nasca Lines, considered an agricultural circle and astronomical calendar by some researchers. Others point out that they were the site of numerous rituals dedicated to their gods. 

      Typical Nasca burials were generally individual, inside a shallow pit. In the Middle and Late Nasca periods, burials appeared in deep burial chambers, with lined walls and more outstanding grave goods than in previous periods, suggesting the appearance of powerful elites and more significant social differentiation. At the site of La Muña, in the Palpa Valley, this type of burial chamber has been found associated with ceremonial architecture. Still, unfortunately, it has already been looted and stolen.

      The position of the buried person could be flexed or lying down. The angled bodies (fetal position) were wrapped with several shrouds until they formed a bundle, similar to those of the Paracas Culture. Some bundles had a so-called “false head,” a slight bulge in the upper part that simulated a head. The burial was accompanied by various offerings, ma or vessels filled with food, weapons, and clothing accessories such as hats, plumes, and bouquets. 

      The importance of the deceased can be determined by the complexity of the chamber’s roof and the number of objects it contains. The tombs of the men and women of the village lack luxury.

      A typical Nasca cemetery is located in Chauchilla, 30 km from the city of the same name. It is composed of burial chambers and pits roofed with cane and mud. Unfortunately, it has been plundered intensely, losing much of the information that it kept. 


      How is the Past of Nasca Lines presented to the visitors?

      The best way the Nasca lines are presented to visitors is written by the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) on its web page;

      In the southern Peruvian desert, giant etchings of spiders, whales, people, and trapezoids stretching across 450sqkm have adorned the landscape for 2,000 years.

      Preserved naturally by the hot sun and a dry climate, the Nasca Lines have been embedded with mystery ever since the Nazca culture collapsed around 600 AD. 

      The ancient Nascas scratched their drawings into the sand by removing rocks from the desert soil.

      The manmade wonder resulted from a collection of shapes and pictures only discernable from great heights—the question of why has lingered over these images for centuries.

      As more and more is uncovered about the ancient civilization that once lived on this arid coastal plain, the Nasca Lines will continue to intrigue for academics and ordinary people. Travelers to Peru can only hope that preservation efforts can make this archaeological treasure last for generations to come.

      Today, the Nasca Lines are a World Heritage Site attracting curious tourists and academics worldwide. But the etchings may be under threat. Nasca’s incredible lines and geoglyphs have been placed on the World Monument Fund’s 2012 Watch list.

      As a result, the Ministry of Culture is working on a master plan to regulate tourism and industrial activity in the area. That plan will likely include tactics for responding to flooding caused by El Niño and La Niña climate patterns.

      Several tour operators offer trips to Nasca, and a few bill themselves as eco-tourism businesses. Outfitters Eco Service Tours and Sacred Earth Travel offer three-day tours to view the geoglyphs from above and up close on the ground.

      Preserving the Nasca Lines should be in the Peruvian government’s best interest. The alluring history of these cryptic lines could have the potential to rival Machu Picchu as a tourist destination.


      How is the Preservation of Nasca Lines?

      Given the desert’s scarcity of rain, wind, and erosion, the geoglyphs have been preserved well over the centuries.

      Unlike other relics worldwide, the Nasca Lines were primarily saved from unintentional destruction, thanks to their location in the desert.

      But they are not entirely risk-free.

      In 2009, the Nasca Lines suffered the first recorded rain damage in their millennial history. The heavy downpours deposited sand and clay on three fingers of the hand-shaped geoglyph. This makes us consider climate change a risk to be considered for preserving this World Heritage Site.

      Five years later, Greenpeace’s environmental group damaged an area near the hummingbird geoglyph. Activists disturbed the top layer of rocks next to the hummingbird figure when they trampled the forbidden area of the desert to put up a large sign promoting renewable energy.

      In 2018, a truck driver who got lost on the Pan American highway was arrested after he drove over a portion of the Nasca Lines, etching deep scars in an area approximately 100 feet by 330 feet (about 50 meters by 100 meters). The damage caused by the truck driver renewed calls for increased security and site surveillance.


      Is there a modern town of Nasca Lines?

      Nasca is a Peruvian city, the capital of the district of the same name, located in the province of Nasca in the department of Ica. Geographically, it is situated on the right bank of the Aja River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, in a valley 520 meters above sea level 439 km south of Lima.

      It is a very vibrant city thanks to the many visitors arriving daily to see the Nasca Lines and its surroundings’ mining, agricultural, and commercial development.

      Its population is approximately 50,000 inhabitants.


      Do Nasca Lines have a No-fly Zone?

      In Peru, overflight is prohibited in restricted areas, such as the Government Palace, military zones, airports, archeological sites (including the Nasca lines), and protected natural areas, unless authorized by the corresponding entities.


      What are the prominent historical landmarks in Nasca?

      Among the main places of historical interest in Nasca, in addition to the lines themselves, we consider the following areas to visit:

      1. Plaza de Armas is the central square of Nasca, where several hotels and restaurants are located. There is also a museum of the same name, which exhibits mostly ceramics of the ancient Nasca culture. 

      Conveniently located a short distance from the small Maria Reiche Neuman airport, which usually handles tourist traffic, it is the liveliest place in town.

      1. Cahuachi is a citadel and ceremonial center of the ancient Nasca culture. There, we can find two staggered adobe pyramids.
      2. Chauchilla Cemetery: It is a pre-Inca necropolis. Some sources relate it to the ancient Huari Culture and others to the Nasca Culture. In the cemetery, you can see pottery fragments, textiles, and mummies.
      3. The Nasca culture built the Aqueducts of Cantalloc, and they work until today. Demonstrating the technological advances in hydraulic engineering that the Nasca civilization had. More than 40 aqueducts were built, which were used throughout the year to develop efficient agriculture and meet the needs of its population.


      Is Nasca Lines a UNESCO World Heritage Site?

      Since 1994, the Nasca Lines have been considered a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 


      What is the contribution of Nasca Lines to Tourism in Peru?

      Every year, more than one hundred thousand people visit the Nasca Lines. The lines are important for the province of Nasca, as they generate employment and a great deal of fluidity in the local economy.

      According to National Geographic, preserving the Nasca Lines should become a priority for the Peruvian government. This is because, according to an American scientific publication, this great work has all the potential to rival Machu Picchu as a tourist destination.


      Are the Nazca Lines in danger?

      The Nasca Lines are in danger of disappearing in our lifetimes. Despite having survived thousands of years, the Lines could easily be swept away by a major storm, a risk in the age of climate change.

      However, humans are the greatest threat to the Nasca Lines: urbanization, road construction, and modernity are more severe threats than any other natural reason.

      The best-known case of damage caused by human actions to the Nasca Lines occurred in 2014 when twelve Greenpeace activists illegally entered a 40m2 area where the Colibri geoglyph is located. In this space, 45 yellow canvases were placed with the message “Time for Change! The future is renewable, Greenpeace”. 

      The events occurred during the UN Climate Conference held in Peru that year.

      In 2015, the executive director of Greenpeace International, Kumi Naidoo, acknowledged that the activity was a mistake. “Greenpeace should never have done the activity in the Nazca lines,” he assured and affirmed that they would repair the damage.


      Is Nasca Lines floated in the Past?

      The Nasca lines did not float in the Past.

      The Nasca Lines are located where less than one liter/m² of rain falls annually. As this is an arid terrain, the composition of the soil, with a high gypsum content mixed with the morning dew, keeps the dirt and stones “attached” to the ground, preventing them from being dragged by the movement of the air.

       This hot air is a cushion that prevents the lines from blurring because it forces the wind to change its direction.


      How many Artifacts exist in Nasca Lines?

      To date, more than 1,500 geoglyphs are known to have been crafted by the ancient Nazca culture.

       These geometric drawings and figures extend over 400 square kilometers in southern Peru. The figures are up to 1.9 kilometers long, and the lines are up to 10 kilometers.

      Currently, in December 2022, new drawings and figures continue to appear. There are many theories about why the Nazca people could have been drawn these lines


      Some Sample Artifacts from Nasca Lines?

      Below is a list of the artifacts in the Nasca lines;

      Hummingbird Figure – Nasca Lines

      The figure of the Hands – Nasca Lines

      The figure of the spider – Nasca Lines 

      Monkey Figure – Nasca Lines

      Nasca Culture Textiles 

      Mug with pelican motifs – Nasca Culture.


      What are the movies about Nasca Lines?

      Several films, reports, and documentaries have been made about the Nasca Lines. Some have been productions made with all the seriousness and rigor in the information of National Geographic, as well as other works made solely for entertainment, as is the case of Indiana Jones and the Crystal Skull and the soon-to-be-released movie Transformers: The Awakening of the Beasts. 


      1 – The documentary series ‘The Nazca Lines’, was produced by Edge West Production in association with National Geographic Television for National Geographic Channel. 


      2- BBC News report – Skydivers’ 8,800ft jump over Peru’s Nazca lines


      3 – Indiana Jones and the Crystal Skull (2008). Indiana Jones makes one of his last adventures in Peru. During his stay in the country of the Incas, he visits Cusco and the ancient Nasca lines.


      4 – Transformers: Awakening of the Beasts. (2023). So far, the last great confrontation between Autobots and Decepticons takes place in Peru, in some of its most ancient peoples famous historical and millenary places.


      Who are the famous people who visited Nasca Lines?

      Among the essential explorers, scientists, archaeologists, and researchers who have worked in the Nasca Lines, we can consider the Spanish Pedro Cieza de León (in the XVI century), the Peruvian Toribio Mejía Xesspe, the North Americans Paul Kosok and John Reinhard (the latter is a recognized member of National Geographic), the German Maria Reiche and the Japanese Masato Sakai.

      From the world of fiction, the movie hero Indiana Jones (represented by Harrison Ford) lived adventures in the Nasca Lines that we were lucky enough to see in the movie “Indiana Jones and the Crystal Skull”. The movie’s filming took place in the USA, but, as an anecdote and from fantasy, great Indiana once again saved the world, in this case, from Nasca.


      Unlike Indiana Jones, who did visit the Nasca Lines, and filmed scenes of his new movie in Peru, were the Autobots. Their next confrontation against the evil Decepticons takes place in Peruvian territory: Nasca, Cusco, and the Amazon jungle. In 2023 we will see them in Transformers: Awakening of the Beasts.

      What is the address and contact information for Evolution Treks Peru?

       Evolution Treks Peru is located in Calle Chile Q-17, Cusco Peru. 

      What are some popular tours in Peru offered by Evolution Treks Peru?

      Evolution Treks  Peru offers a variety of popular tours in Peru that cater to different preferences and budgets. Here are a few examples:

      1. Classic Tour: Mysterious Nazca Lines and Machu PicchuDuration: 7 days / 6 nightsHighlights: Lima, Ica, Paracas, Nazca, Cusco, Sacred Valley, Machu PicchuThis tour takes you to explore the enigmatic Nazca Lines, witness the breathtaking beauty of Machu Picchu, and discover the rich cultural heritage of Cusco and the Sacred Valley.

      2. Classic Tour: Peru Magic; Duration: 12 days / 11 nightsHighlights: Lima, Ica, Paracas, Nazca, Arequipa, Colca Canyon, Puno, Lake Titicaca, Cusco, Sacred Valley, Machu PicchuDiscover the true magic of Peru with this comprehensive tour. This tour promises an unforgettable journey from the mysterious Nazca Lines and the mesmerizing landscapes of Colca Canyon to the captivating beauty of Lake Titicaca and the iconic Machu Picchu.

      3. Luxury Tour: Mysteries from the Air; Duration: 9 days / 8 nightsHighlights: Lima, Ica, Paracas, Nazca, Cusco, Sacred Valley, Machu Picchu. Embark on a luxury adventure that combines the charm of Peru’s ancient wonders with exclusive aerial experiences. This tour features visits to the Nazca Lines, Machu Picchu, and other sacred sites while offering unique opportunities to witness the mystique of Peru from the air.

      These are just a few examples of the popular tours offered by Evolution Treks Peru. Whether you’re seeking classic cultural exploration or a luxurious adventure, they have a diverse range of tours that cater to different interests and travel styles.


      Share this Blog post with others: